- It is a large sensory organ to touch.
- Protect underlined tissue and organs.
- Regulation of Temperature.
- Excretion of salt and water.
- 1st line defense mechanism against infection.
- Receive stimuli from external environment such as pain, touch, pressure, temperature, cold, and relay that information to CNS.
- Synthesis of vit D which is absorbed form sunlight necessary for calcium metabolism.
- Stores nutrient.
- Protect body from dehydration.
Layers of Skin
- Hypodermis (Subcutaneous fat)
- Stratum Cornum.
- Stratum Lucicum.
- Stratum Granulisom.
- Stratum spinosm.
- Stratum Basila.
Appendages of epidermis
- Sweat gland,
- Sebaceous gland.
Normal Bacterial flora
- ph of skin 4.2 – 5.6.
- Normal bacterial flora are gram +ve and –ve Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, and streptococcus.
- Exposure to chemical,
- Environmental pollutant,
- Exposure to radiation,
- Exposure to sunlight,
- Lack of personal hygiene,
- Use of cosmetic and harsh soap,
- Nutritional deficiency,
- Moderate to severe mental stress,
- Infection and injury,
- Changes associated with aging.
- Skin biopsy
- Obtain a small part of skin by incision, excision, patch, or share method.
- Written consent,
- stop anticoagulant,
- Clean the sight,
- sight should be observed for bleeding,
- Dressing should be kept for 8 hr after cleaning the sight and apply antibiotics.
- Skin Culture
- A small skin culture sample is obtained with a sterile applicator to an appropriate type of culture tube.
- Viral culture is placed immediately over ice.
- Sample should be taken before starting antibiotics.
- Wood’s light examination
- Skin is viewed under ultra violet light through a special wood glass to identify superficial infection of the skin.
- Darken the room prior to examination.
- Assist the client while adjustment from darken room to the light.
- Skin testing
- Administration of an allergen to the skin surface or into dermis by patch, scratch, or intra-dermal technique.
- Stop systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, 2days before the test.
- Obtain written consent.
- Emergency equipment should be ready (resuscitation )
Post procedure Responsibility
- Avoid vigorous activity that may produce sweating if a patch test was performed.
- If a patch is loosen of fails it should not be replace.
- Record the date, time, and sight of the test.
- Record the date and time of follow up sight reading.
- Monitor edema, size, indurations, color changes erythema, papuls, and vesicle.
- Primary lesion
Flat, circumscribed, discoloration, of the skin in any size and shape.
Solid elevated lesion less than 1 cm.
Solid elevated lesion larger than 1 cm wide.
Fluid filled sac less then 1 cm.
A vesicle or blister greater than 1 cm.
Raised lesion which contain puss.
Solid elevated lesion that present on the skin and mucous membrane larger than 1 cm.
Soft or firm mass in the skin filled with semisolid or with liquid materials in the sac.
- Secondary lesion
Heaped up, horny layer of dead epidermis as a result of inflammatory changes.
Covering formed by the dry serum, blood or puss.
Linea scratch mark or traumatized area of skin.
Crack in the skin due to inflammation.
Lesion formed by local destruction of epidermis and part of dermis.
New formation of connective tissue that replace the loss of subcutaneous tissue in the dermis as a result of injury.
Wasting of the skin cells that cause thinning of the skin.
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