HEMATOLOGY : SHORT NOTES FOR NURSES

HAEMATOLOGY


Hematology is the study of blood anatomy and physiology of blood

Blood 

  • plasma( 55%)
  • Cellular component 45%                            

Plasma     :-       Albumin,  Globulin,  Clotting factor

Albumin:-     Maintain osmotic pressure

Globulin

  • Alfa Globulin ———–Transport Of Iron, Bilirubin, And Steroid
  • Beta Globulin————–Transport Of Copper And Iron
  • Gamma Globulin———–Maintain Immunity

Cellular component      RBC, W B C, PLATELETE

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CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS PART-1

CARDIAC DISORDERS

Angina pectoris

  • it is the chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia caused by inadequate myocardial blood and O2 supply
  • this is due to obstruction of coronary blood flow because of arthrosclerosis, cad, coronary artery spasm, and condition increasing myocardial oxygen consumption
types
  • stable angina
    • also called exertional angina
    • it occur with activity or emotional stress
    • it is relieved with rest or nitroglycerin
  • unstable angina
    • also called preinfraction angina
    • it occur with unpredictable  degree of exertion or emotion
    • Increase in occurrence , duration, and severity over time
    • Pain may not be relive with nitroglycerin

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CARDIAC PROCEDURES AND NURSES RESPONSIBILITY

CARDIAC PROCEDURES AND NURSES RESPONSIBILTY

  1. PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty)

  • One or more artery are dilated with a balloon catheter to open the vessel lumen and improve atrial blood flow
  • The client may experience re-occlusion after the procedure thus the procedure need to repeat
Complication
  • Re-occlusion
  • Artery dissection or rapture
  • Mobilization of plaque fragment
  • Spasm of the artery and acute MI
Life style modification
  • Reduce weight
  • Avoid fatty food
  • Avoid smoking
  • alter exercise pattern

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CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA

CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA 

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 Normal Sinus rhythm

  • Cardiac Rhythm originate from SA node
  • Arterial and ventricular rhythm are regular
  • HR is b/w 60 -100b/min
  • PR interval and QRS complex are normal
  • This is normal ECG and no intervention is needed

Sinus bradycardia

  • Rate is less than 60b/min
  • Rhythm is normal
  • Conduction is normal

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CARE OF TUBES : SHORT NOTE FOR NURSES

CARE OF TUBES

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1 NASOGASTRIC TUBES

  • Short tubes used to intubate the stomach
  • Inserted from nose to the stomach
  • Purpose is to decompress the stomach by removing fluids and \or gas to promote abdominal comfort
  • It provide nutrition by acting as a temporary feeding tube

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART

Cardiology : core components for nurses

 

Anatomy and physiology

Heart is the vital organ which is located in the left side of medisternium in the thoracic cavity. Normal weight of the heart is 300gm

Layers
  • Epicardium (outer layer)
  • Myocardium (middle layer )
  • Endocardium (inner layer )
Pericardium  ; –

encase and protect the heart from trauma and infection

Layers of pericardium
  • Parietal layer
  • Visceral layer

There is a sac in between these two layer, known as pericardial sac. And fluid which is present between these layers known as pericardial fluids normal amount is 5 to 20 ml

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