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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

RAYNAUD’S DISEASE & BUERGER’S DISEASE

RAYNAUD’S DISEASE

  • Vasospasms of the arterioles and arteries of the upper and lower extremities
  • It causes constriction of the cutaneous vessels.
  • It attacks intermittent and occur with exposure to cold or stress
  • It affects fingers, toes, ears, and cheeks

Signs and symptoms

  • Blanching of extremity, followed by cyanosis, during vasoconstriction
  • Reddened tissue when the vasospasm is relieved
  • Numbness, tingling, swelling, and a cold temperature at the affected body part

Management

  • Administer vasodilator as prescribed
  • Instruct the client to avoid cold and stress
  • Avoid smoking
  • Advice the client to avoid injury to the finger and hand, provide warm clothing, socks, and gloves in cold weather
  • Monitor pulse

BUERGER’S DISEASE

  • It is an occlusive disease of the median and small vessels (arteries and vein)
  • Most commonly affected in distal upper and lower extremity.

Signs and symptoms

  • Ischemic pain in digits (finger and toes) during rest
  • Aching pain, that is more severe at night
  • Cool, numbness or tingling sensation
  • Diminished pulses in the distal extremity and cold to touch
  • Development of ulceration in the extremity

Management

  • Administration of vasodilator
  • Promote blood circulation
  • Stop smoking and avoid injury to extremity
  • Monitor pulses in the extremity
Categories
MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM – INTRODUCTION

 

INTUGEMENTRY

Skin  

  • It is a large sensory organ to touch.

Function   

  • Protect underlined tissue and organs.
  • Regulation of Temperature.
  • Excretion of salt and water.
  • 1st line defense mechanism against infection.
  • Receive stimuli from external environment such as pain, touch, pressure, temperature, cold, and relay that information to CNS.
  • Synthesis of vit D which is absorbed form sunlight necessary for calcium metabolism.
  • Stores nutrient.
  • Protect body from dehydration.
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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

Short note for nurses on musculo-skeletal diseases

DISEASES CONDITIONS


Rheumatoid arthritis

• It is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease which leads to the destruction of connective tissue and the synovial membrane within the joints.
• It weakens and leads to dislocation of the joint and permanent deformity and formation of pannus (abnormal osseous tissue) at the junction of the synovial tissue and articular cartilage.

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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

MUSCULO SKELETAL INJURIES:SHORT NOTE FOR NURSES

INJURIES IN MUSCULO SKELETAL SYSTEM 

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CONTUSION    

  • Soft tissue injury produced by a blunt force, kick, or fall.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS 

  • Ecchymosis (Bleeding into the injured  part) .
  • Swelling.
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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

short note on musculoskeletal system for nurses : Introduction

MUSCULO SKELTETAL SYSTEM


Anatomy and Physiology
Skelton
1. Axial portion
o cranium
o vertebrae
o Ribs.
• 2- Appendicular portion
o limbs
o shoulders
o Hips

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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

CHEST INJURIES : SHORT NOTE FOR NURSES

CHEST INJURY

A chest injury can occur as the result of an accidental or deliberate penetration of a foreign object into the chest. This type of injury can also result from a blunt trauma, leading to chest wall injury causing rib bruises, fracture, lung or heart contusions

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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM : DIFFERENT TYPES OF THERAPIES

CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY

It includes Precaution, vibration, postural drainage.

Precaution; Clapping the affected area with cupped hands.

Vibration; Pressing affected area with flat hands.

Postural drainage: different position are given to drain out from different lobs of lung.

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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES IN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

Chest X ray

It is the most common diagnostic procedure to find out any anatomical abnormality or infection in the lung

Nurses Responsibility

-Remove metal object or radio opaque object, light jewels.

-Access the female patient whether she is pregnant or not. If so allow only after 20th week of gestation

-Remove constructive clothing and keep loose gowns.

-Instruct the patient to take deep breath and hold it during procedure to expand lungs.

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MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

 

1 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

A. Primary function
Provide oxygen for the metabolism in the tissue
Remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of metabolism

B. Secondary functions

1. Facilitates the sense of smell.
2. Produces speech
3. Maintain acid base balance
4. Maintain body water levels
5. Maintain body heat balance

Categories
MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING

ONCOLOGY: SHORT NOTE FOR NURSES( PART 1)

ONCOLOGY

CANCER

It is a neoplastic disorder that can involve or affect any part of the body. it is a condition characterized by abnormal multiplication of cell.

It means study of cancer

  • Rout of metastasis
    • Local ceding
    • Blood born
    • Lymphatic system

Metastasis is spreading cancer to one site to another site.