CHEST INJURIES : SHORT NOTE FOR NURSES

CHEST INJURIES

A chest injury can occur as the result of an accidental or deliberate penetration of a foreign object into the chest. This type of injury can also result from a blunt trauma, leading to chest wall injury (causing rib bruises, fracture, lung or heart contusions

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM : DIFFERENT TYPES OF THERAPIES

CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY

It includes Precaution, vibration, postural drainage.

Precaution; Clapping the affected area with cupped hands.

Vibration; Pressing affected area with flat hands.

Postural drainage: different position are given to drain out from different lobs of lung.

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DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES IN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

Chest X ray

It is the most common diagnostic procedure to find out any anatomical abnormality or infection in the lung

Nurses Responsibility

-Remove metal object or radio opaque object, light jewels.

-Access the female patient whether she is pregnant or not. If so allow only after 20th week of gestation

-Remove constructive clothing and keep loose gowns.

-Instruct the patient to take deep breath and hold it during procedure to expand lungs.

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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

 

1 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

A. Primary function
Provide oxygen for the metabolism in the tissue
Remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of metabolism

B. Secondary functions

1. Facilitates the sense of smell.
2. Produces speech
3. Maintain acid base balance
4. Maintain body water levels
5. Maintain body heat balance

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ONCOLOGY: SHORT NOTE FOR NURSES( PART 1)

ONCOLOGY

CANCER

It is a neoplastic disorder that can involve or affect any part of the body. it is a condition characterized by abnormal multiplication of cell.

It means study of cancer

  • Rout of metastasis
    • Local ceding
    • Blood born
    • Lymphatic system

Metastasis is spreading cancer to one site to another site.

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ACID BASE BALANCE ( METABOLIC)

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

  • A relative increase in the H+ concentrations occurs as a result of losing huge amount of bases and holding too much acid
  • PH is decreased; PCO2normal; PO2normal; HCO3 decreased

Cause:

  • Diabetes mellitus / diabetic ketoacidosis- an insufficient supply of insulin cause increased fat metabolism, leading to an excess accumulation of ketones or other acids.

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ACID BASE BALANCE

RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS:

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• The total concentration of buffer basis is lower than normal with a increase in H+ concentration which is circulating in the blood than can be absorbed by the buffer system.
• PH is decreased; CO2 is increased; O2 is decreased; HCO3 normal

Cause
 Change in normal respiratory pattern.
 Obstruction of airway.
 Depression in respiratory status.

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ADRENAL GLAND

ADRENAL GLAND DISORDERS

ADRENAL GLAND

• Adrenal gland is situated on top of each kidney
• Regulates sodium and electrolyte balance; affects carbohydrate ,fat, and protein metabolism; influences the development of sexual characteristics; and sustains the fight or flight response
It has two parts adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla
Adrenal cortex : is the outer shell, synthesizes glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids and secrets small amount of sex hormones

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THYROID AND PARATHYROID GLAND DISORDERS

1.HYPOTHYROIDISM

  • It is a state resulting from hyposecretion of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 ,characterized by a decreased rate of body metabolism

Assessment

  • Lethargy and fatigue
  • Intolerence to cold
  • Weight gain
  • Bradycardia
  • Generalized puffiness and edema around the eyes and face (myxedema)
  • Cardiac enlargement, tendency to develop congestive heart failure
  • Goiter may or may not be present

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