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• The total concentration of buffer basis is lower than normal with a increase in H+ concentration which is circulating in the blood than can be absorbed by the buffer system.
• PH is decreased; CO2 is increased; O2 is decreased; HCO3 normal
Change in normal respiratory pattern.
Obstruction of airway.
Depression in respiratory status.
Hypo ventilation which leads Co2 is retained and the H+ increase leading to the acid state co2+H2o= H2Co3 which decrease PH.
Medication which depress respiratory Centre Ex: sedatives, narcotics, and anesthetics.
Bronchitis—due to inflammation causes airway obstruction leads decrease oxygen.
Atelectasis—excessive mucus collection, with the collapse of alveolar sacs causes mucus plugs.
Brain trauma—which depress medulla oblongata.
Emphysema—loss of elasticity of alveolar sacs restricts or flow in and out which cause increase Co2 level
Asthma—spasms resulting from allergens cause smooth muscles to constrict.
Pulmonary edema-due to water collection.
Bronchiectasis—due to dilation of bronchi air flow decreases.
Signs and symptoms
• Increased rate and depth of breathing
• Head ache
• Mental status changes such as drowsiness and confusion
• Visual disturbances
• Dysrhythmias leads to VF
Monitor for signs of respiratory distress.
Place the client in semi fowler’s position.
Encourage the client to turn, cough, and deep breath exercises
Find out the cause and treat it with antibiotics for infection and bronchodilator to dilate bronchus.
Encourage hydration to thin secretions.
Suction the client if necessary.
Reduce restlessness by improving ventilation.
Monitor electrolyte value specially potassium.
• A deficit of H2Co3 and decrease in H+ concentration which result in loss of acid
• PH is increased; Co2 is decreased; O2 is increased: HCO3 normal.
• Over stimulations of the respiratory status.
• Hyper ventilation –rapid respiration causes the blowing off Co2 leading to a decrease in H2Co3.
• Hysteria- this condition leads to vigorous breathing and excessive exhaling of Co2.
• Over ventilation by mechanical ventilators.
• Condition that increase metabolism such as fever
• Pain or brain trauma –causes over stimulation of the respiratory center in the brainstem.
• Administration of salicylates—stimulate the respiratory Centre , causing hyperventilation
• Hypoxemia –causes respiratory stimulation with resultant carbonic acid deficit
Signs and symptoms
o Initially The Hyperventilation And Respiratory Stimulation Will Cause Abnormal Rapid Respiration Then Respiration Go Down
o Light Headedness
o Mental Status Changes
o Paresthesia Such As Tingling Of Fingers And Toes
o Hypokalemia, And Hypocalcaemia
o Provide emotional support.
o Encourage appropriate breathing patterns.
o Assist with techniques of breathing.
o Voluntary holding of breath.
o Re breathe exhaled co2.
o Re breathing mask.
o Carbon dioxide breaths.
o Provide caution care with ventilator client.
o Monitor electrolyte value particularly potassium and calcium.
o Administration medication as prescribed.
o Prepare to administer calcium gluconate for tetany.